About the Roman history of the region

The sou­thern Upper Rhi­ne regi­on is an old Roman ara­ble land. During the reign of Gai­us Juli­us Cae­sar the Rhi­ne beca­me the Roman impe­ri­al fron­tier. In the ear­ly 1st cen­tu­ry the ter­ri­to­ries on the eas­tern bank of the river Rhi­ne were secu­red by the Roman mili­ta­ry. The­re were mili­ta­ry bases in Rie­gel at the nort­hern edge of the Kai­ser­stuhl and on the Lim­berg clo­se to Sas­bach. Con­se­quent­ly, the Upper Rhi­ne regi­on was incorpo­ra­ted into the Roman Empi­re and beca­me den­se­ly popu­la­ted by civi­li­ans.

Clo­se to Grenz­ach, Aug­gen and Hei­ters­heim Roman farms had been built first and later they were exten­ded to enor­mous esta­tes. Nume­rous esta­tes in the area of the Roman town Augus­ta Rau­ri­ca and along the sou­thern Upper Rhi­ne, loca­ted in Wyh­len, Rhein­fel­den-Nol­lin­gen, Lör­rach-Brom­bach, Fischin­gen, Efrin­gen-Kir­chen and in Müll­heim, as well as lar­ger colo­nies such as tho­se in Bad Kro­zin­gen show evi­dence of the region’s pro­spe­ri­ty which was also due to the fer­ti­le soil. Clo­se to Bad Bel­lin­gen and Schli­en­gen signs of Roman iron mining were found. A cura­ti­ve spring rep­re­sen­ted the ori­gin for the sett­le­ment of Baden­wei­ler. Sub­se­quent­ly, the Romans built up around this spring the big­gest ther­mal spa on the right bank of the Rhi­ne. At that time Rie­gel was an admi­nis­tra­ti­ve cent­re. An important mar­ket basi­li­ca and fur­t­her ruins of a Roman town were dis­co­ve­r­ed the­re.

After having lost the ter­ri­to­ry of the Pro­vin­ce Ger­ma­nia Supe­ri­or on the right bank of the Rhi­ne in the 3rd cen­tu­ry, the Romans forti­fied the Rhi­ne fron­tier again. In the 4th cen­tu­ry they built Roman forti­fi­ca­ti­ons on the Rhi­ne; for examp­le the bridge cast­le near Wyh­len, the fort on the Müns­ter­berg in Brei­sach and the fort­let in Jechtin­gen. This Danu­be-Iller-Rhi­ne Limes, built in the late anti­qui­ty, rep­re­sen­ted the last Roman fron­tier in this regi­on and it was in exis­tence until the 5th cen­tu­ry.